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{PICTURE: 32 Slaughter some beef}
{PICTURE: 32 BEEF cutup and preparation for freezing}
Typical butchering scenes as
I prepared our own meat.
These are at Jameston.

We had a small garden because we had to carry water to it. We did raise some peas, carrots, and radishes.

We got much of our garden produce from my Dad in the summer. He raised a real good garden as did some of Millie's family. They were all generous to us with what they had. Dad also gave us a part of a mutton every year. The first time he gave us some Millie turned her nose up at it, saying she did not like 'sheep meat'. I fried some of the leaner parts and she tasted it. From then on she liked it very much.

Millie did much canning of fruits and vegetables which would last us through the year. We made our own sauerkraut which was very good.

Mr. Johnson's store did not have fresh or frozen food. There was no way to transport or preserve such in those days.

We had no electricity, running water, inside plumbing, telephones - not even radios at first. Electricity came into our area before we left but we did not connect up to it. We had a gasoline lamp which burned two mantles for light. This burned really quite bright. I got out my own wood to burn for cooking and for heating our home. Usually our neighbor, Louis Ryle, who lived north of us across the creek would go with me to get out wood. We would go after the first snow when there was at least a foot accumulation on the ground. We went straight east to the timber line. We'd leave about 4 or 5 a.m., locate the dead wood we wanted, cut it down by hand using a double edged ax as neither of us had saws; then load it onto our sleighs and return home by 9 to 10 p.m. We did have a one man saw which we used to cut the logs into lengths of 14-15 feet to go on the bolster of the bob sleighs. If the logs were too big and too far away we'd have to use a horse to hook onto them and drag them over to the sleigh. Then we'd lift one end at a time up onto the sleigh putting the big end at the front. We would load about 5 logs high and 3 and a half feet wide. It would take 6 loads to last the year. After several years

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I cut and split quaken asps from off my own property to use for summer cooking. Millie liked it because it produced heat quick and burned out fast. For winter we always used pine because it burned longer. We finally ordered a saw from Sears and Roebuck onto which we hooked a belt from the tractor pulley to saw up the logs at home. Then I would have to split enough every day for the next 24 hours. Louis Ryle made a saw which he mounted on a sleigh, it resembled a radial arm saw. He cut my logs for several of the last years we were there. Each night in the winter I would carry six large arm loads onto the back porch and stack them to the ceiling. This would last us through 24 hours, unless it was extremely cold.

During the Depression years it was hard to get hold of a dollar. Dad went to a bank in Sugar City with me so I could borrow about $300.00 to buy my seed for planting. The banker said: "If you're as good as your Dad I'm not worried about you."

{PICTURE: 33 Sketch of their First Radio}
We bought a battery powered radio from Mr. Johnson about 1930. This brought in the news and other programs. When the children were growing up the special programs they liked were "Little Orphan Annie", "Jack Armstrong" and "Gang Busters" which had a lead line : "Crime Never Pays". When Ward Costley heard we had purchased a radio he came to see us. He and, I stayed up all night listening to it. He did not yet have one. This was our only touch with the outside world other than very infrequent trips to our country store at Squirrel, Idaho or to the valley in the summer. Another favorite program was Major Bowles, "Talent Hour."

One humorous situation I remember was when John, my brother, came up to the dryfarm to help in the grain. He did love Millie's cooking. He would enjoy the dinners she cooked. They brought us up a gas refrigerator and Millie would have home-made ice cream and chocolate sauce. He nearly foundered on that. One morning Millie made mush for breakfast. We only had a coal oil light and so we couldn't see very well. When we came in at noon Millie said the mush had had worms in it. John said, "I wondered why I got so hungry. The worms ate it all."

Washing was done in a round tub once a week. When I was summer fallowing I got so dirty. I'd bathe several times a week because I couldn't stand to go to bed so dirty. The water was heated on top of the stove in a large oblong pan and in the reservoir which was attached to the kitchen range. The children all bathed in the same tub of water.

Washing was done with a hand turned washing machine at first. We used this about 4-5 years. Water was drawn from the well by a hand pump and carried from the pump house a hundred feet or so to the house.

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It was the best drinking water and stayed so cold all summer long. Millie added lye to it as she heated it. 1 helped her with the wash much of the time. Then we were able to get a Maytag with a motor and a wringer. Though this made washing easier it frightened us on several ocassions when one of the children or Millie got an arm or hand caught in the wringer.

Millie made her own soap by grease drippings, lye and water in a large kettle. She cooked this. It was then poured out into large tubs to about the depth of 2 and a half to 3 inches and allowed to harden up. Then it was cut into small squares for storage. When she washed with this she shaved off the bar the amount of soap she thought she would need into a kettle, added a little water and let it set on the back of the range while the water was heating. This softened it up. Then it was added to the wash water.

All ironing as well as washing was done by hand. Millie did eventually get a gas iron. In those days everything was ironed as most things (clothes, tablecloths, etc) were made of cotton. They had to be ironed because they wrinkled so badly. Then the wash was hung out on the line to dry.

Millie had a treadle sewing machine. She made most of the children's clothing.

On the back porch we had a cream separator to extract the cream from the milk. The milk was kept cool in the summer in the cellar under the house. What milk we couldn't drink we fed to the chickens, pigs or little lambs. Millie made all our butter and some cottage cheese. I have never cared much for this kind of cheese, then or now.